Kadaitswami: "Marketplace swami." A satguru of the Nandinatha Sampradaya's Kailasa Parampara. Born ca 1820; died 1875. Renouncing his career as a judge in Bangalore, South India, Kadaitswami became a sannyasin and trained under the "Rishi from the Himalayas," who then sent him on mission to Sri Lanka. He performed severe tapas on an island off the coast of Jaffna, awakening many siddhis. For decades he spurred the Sri Lankan Saivites to greater spirituality through his inspired talks and demonstration of siddhis. He initiated Chellappaswami as the next satguru in the parampara. See: Kailasa Parampara, Natha Sampradaya.

Kadavul: "Beyond and within." An ancient Tamil name for Lord Siva meaning, "He who is both immanent and transcendent, within and beyond." See: Siva.

Kailasa: "Crystalline" or "abode of bliss." The four-faced Himalayan peak in Western Tibet; the earthly abode of Lord Siva. Associated with Mount Meru, the legendary center of the universe, it is an important pilgrimage destination for all Hindus, as well as for Tibetan Buddhists. Kailasa is represented in Shaktism by a certain three-dimensional form of the Shri Chakra yantra (also called kailasa chakra).

Kailasa Parampara: A spiritual lineage of siddhas, a major stream of the Nandinatha Sampradaya, proponents of the ancient philosophy of monistic Saiva Siddhanta. The first of these masters that history recalls was Maharishi Nandinatha (or Nandikeshvara) 2,250 years ago, satguru to the great Tirumular, ca 200 bce, and seven other disciples (as stated in the Tirumantiram): Patanjali, Vyaghrapada, Sanatkumara, Sivayogamuni, Sanakar, Sanadanar and Sananthanar. Tirumular had seven disciples: Malangam, Indiran, Soman, Brahman, Rudran, Kalanga, and Kanjamalayam, each of whom established one or more monasteries and propagated the Agamic lore. In the line of Kalanga came the sages Righama, Maligaideva, Nadantar, Bhogadeva and Paramananda. The lineage continued down the centuries and is alive today—the first recent siddha known being the Rishi from the Himalayas, so named because he descended from those holy mountains. In South India, he initiated Kadaitswami (ca 1810–1875), who in turn initiated Chellappaswami (1840–1915). Chellappan passed the mantle of authority to sage Yogaswami (1872–1964), who in 1949 initiated the current satguru, Sivaya Subramuniyaswami. See: Chellapaswami, Kadaitswami, Natha Sampradaya, Subramuniyaswami, Tirumular, Yogaswami.

(chatuh shashti kala): "Sixty-four arts." A classical curriculum of sacred sciences, studies, arts and skills of cultured living listed in various Hindu shastras. Its most well-known appearance is in the Kama Sutra, an extensive manual devoted to sensual pleasures. The kalas are among the skills traditionally taught to both genders, while emphasizing masculinity in men and femininity in women. Their subject matter draws on such texts as the Vedangas and Upavedas, and the Shilpa Shastras, or craft manuals. Through the centuries, writers have prescribed many more skills and accomplishments. These include sculpture, pottery, weaving, astronomy and astrology, mathematics, weights and measures, philosophy, scriptural study, agriculture, navigation, trade and shipping, knowledge of time, logic, psychology and ayurveda. In modern times, two unique sets of 64 kalas have been developed, one for girls and one for boys.

Kali Yuga: "Dark Age." The Kali Yuga is the last age in the repetitive cycle of four phases of time the universe passes through. It is comparable to the darkest part of the night, as the forces of ignorance are in full power and many of the subtle faculties of the soul are obscured. See: yuga.

kama: "Pleasure, love; desire." Cultural, intellectual and sexual fulfillment. One of four human goals, purushartha. See: purushartha.

kamandalu: "Vessel, water jar." Traditionally earthen or wooden, carried by sannyasins, it symbolizes the renunciate's simple, self-contained life. The tree from which kamandalus are traditionally made is the kamandalutaru. See: sannyasa dharma, sannyasin.

karma: "Action, deed." One of the most important principles in Hindu thought, karma refers to 1) any act or deed; 2) the principle of cause and effect; 3) a consequence or "fruit of action" (karmaphala) or "after effect" (uttaraphala), which sooner or later returns upon the doer. What we sow, we shall reap in this or future lives. Selfish, hateful acts (papakarma or kukarma) will bring suffering. Benevolent actions (punyakarma or sukarma) will bring loving reactions. Karma is a neutral, self-perpetuating law of the inner cosmos, much as gravity is an impersonal law of the outer cosmos. ¶Karma is threefold: sanchita, prarabdha and kriyamana. --sanchita karma: "Accumulated actions." The sum of all karmas of this life and past lives. --prarabdha karma: "Actions begun; set in motion." That portion of sanchita karma that is bearing fruit and shaping the events and conditions of the current life, including the nature of one's bodies, personal tendencies and associations. --kriyamana karma: "Being made." The karma being created and added to sanchita in this life by one's thoughts, words and actions, or in the inner worlds between lives. Kriyamana karma is also called agami, "coming, arriving," and vartamana, "living, set in motion." While some kriyamana karmas bear fruit in the current life, others are stored for future births. Each of these types can be divided into two categories: arabdha (literally, "begun, undertaken;" karma that is "sprouting"), and anarabdha ("not commenced; dormant"), or "seed karma." See: mala, moksha, sin, soul.

karma yoga: "Union through action." The path of selfless service. See: yoga.

karma yogi: One who does acts of service while seeking no rewards.

karmic pattern: One's individual pattern of living based on all experiences from this and previous lives, the culmination of which is the future.

Karttikeya: Child of the Pleiades, from Krittika, "Pleiades." A son of Siva. A great Mahadeva worshiped in all parts of India and the world. Also known as Murugan, Kumara, Skanda, Shanmukhanatha, Subramanya and more, He is the God who guides that part of evolution which is religion, the transformation of the instinctive into a divine wisdom through the practice of yoga. He holds the holy vel of jnana shakti, which is His Power to vanquish darkness or ignorance.

Kashmir Saivite: Of or related to Kashmir Saivism; a follower of this sect of Hinduism.

Kauai: Northernmost of the Hawaiian islands; 555 sq. mi., pop. 50,000.

Kauai Aadheenam: Monastery-temple complex founded by Sivaya Subramuniyaswami in 1970; international headquarters of Saiva Siddhanta Church.

kavadi: A penance offered to Lord Murugan-Karttikeya, especially during Tai Pusam, consisting of carrying in procession a heavy, beautifully decorated, wooden object from which pots of milk hang which are to be used for His abhisheka. The participant's tongue and other parts of the body are often pierced with small silver spears or hooks. See: penance.

kavi: "Ocher-saffron color." A Tamil term referring to the color taken on by robes of sadhus who sit, meditate or live on the banks of the Ganges. Names the color of the sannyasin's robes. The Sanskrit equivalent is kashaya.

keshanta: "Beard-shaving." See: samskaras of adulthood.

kolam: Traditional household and priestly art of "drawing" intricate decorative patterns at the entrance to a home or temple or at the site of a religious ceremony. Known as rangoli in Sanskrit. Kolam designs are made with rice powder mixed to a watery paste, and sometimes with flowers and various-colored powdered pulses.

konrai: The Golden Shower tree, Cassia fistula; symbol of Siva's cascading, abundant, golden grace.

kosha: "Sheath; vessel, container; layer." Philosophically, five sheaths through which the soul functions simultaneously in the various planes or levels of existence. --annamaya kosha: "Sheath composed of food." The physical or odic body. --pranamaya kosha: "Sheath composed of prana (vital force)." Also known as the pranic or health body, or the etheric body or etheric double. --manomaya kosha: "Mind-formed sheath." The lower astral body, from manas, "thought, will, wish." The instinctive-intellectual sheath of ordinary thought, desire and emotion. --vijnanamaya kosha: "Sheath of cognition." The mental or cognitive-intuitive sheath, also called the actinodic sheath. --anandamaya kosha: "Body of bliss." The intuitive-superconscious sheath or actinic-causal body. Anandamaya kosha is not a sheath in the same sense as the four outer koshas. It is the soul itself, a body of light, also called karana sharira, causal body, and karmashaya, holder of karmas of this and all past lives. Anandamaya kosha is that which evolves through all incarnations and beyond until the soul's ultimate, fulfilled merger, vishvagrasa, in the Primal Soul, Parameshvara. Then anandamaya kosha becomes Sivamayakosha, the body of God Siva.

koyil: Tamil word for temple.

Krittika Dipa: A joyous one-day festival on the Krittika nakshatra (Pleiades constellation), in November-December, when God Siva is worshiped as an infinite pillar of light. Great bonfires are lit at night on hills and in villages in India and elsewhere to represent the divine, all-permeating light of Parashakti. See: festival.

kriya: "Action." In a general sense, kriya can refer to doing of any kind. Specifically, it names religious action, especially rites or ceremonies. In yoga terminology, kriya names involuntary physical movements caused by the arousal of the kundalini. See: pada.

kriyamana karma: "Actions being made." See: karma.

kriya pada: "Stage of religious action; worship." The stage of worship and devotion, second of four progressive stages of maturation on the Saiva Siddhanta path of attainment. See: pada.

kshatriya: "Governing; sovereign." The social class of lawmakers, law-enforcers and military.

kukarma: "Unwholesome acts" or the fruit therefrom. See: karma, papa.

kulaguru: "Family preceptor or teacher." The kulaguru guides the joint and extended family, particularly through the heads of families, and provides spiritual education. He may or may not be a satguru.

kulamata: See: kulapati.

kulapati: A married man who is the head of his joint family and its extended family. His wife is a kulamata. A husband and wife who are part of a kulapati's extended family are known as mukhya and grihini respectively.

kulapati desha chakravala: All the kulapatis in a given country meeting all together three times a year at the beginning of each season—in mid-April, mid-August and mid-December. Also called a national council of patriarchs. Their focus for meetings is to fulfill the spirit of the "three seasons" and to set the tenor for the local missions.

kulapati preshana chakravala: é‹ńīŕ™ See: council on missions.

Kulapati Sutras: A collection of 54 sutras from Living with Siva which serve as the minimum standard for membership in Saiva Siddhanta Church as a vratashishya.

Kulapati Sutra Vrata: ∆ý™ the vow to uphold the 54 Kulapati Sutras, one of the requirements to become a Novitiate Church member, vratashishya.

Kularnava Tantra: A leading scripture of the Kaula school of Shaktism. It comprises 17 chapters totaling 2,058 verses which focus on ways to liberation, with notable chapters on the guru-shishya relationship.

Kumara: "Virgin youth; ever-youthful." A name of Lord Karttikeya as an eternal bachelor. See: Karttikeya.

kumari: "Ever youthful." A young virgin girl, particularly age 10-12.

kumbha: Another name for kalasha, a pot of water on which a husked coconut is nested on five mango leaves to represent the Deity; integral to certain sacred Hindu rites.

kumbhabhisheka: "Water pot ablution." The formal consecration of a new temple and its periodic reconsecration, usually at twelve-year intervals, following renovation, extensive cleaning and renewal. The rites culminate with the priests' pouring sanctified water over the temple spires, which resemble an inverted pot, or kumbha.

kumkuma: "Saffron; red." The red powder, made of turmeric and lime, worn by Hindus as the pottu, dot, at the point of the third eye on the forehead. Names the saffron plant, Crocus sativus, and its pollen.

kundalini: "She who is coiled; serpent power." The primordial cosmic energy in every individual which, at first, lies coiled like a serpent at the base of the spine and eventually, through the practice of yoga, rises up the sushumna nadi. As it rises, the kundalini awakens each successive chakra. Nirvikalpa samadhi, enlightenment, comes as it pierces through the door of Brahman at the core of the sahasrara and enters! See: chakra, samadhi, nadi.

kuttuvilaku: A standing lamp (dipastambha in Sanskrit) found in the temple, shrine room or home.

kutumba: "Family." See: extended family, joint family.